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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 193-195

Fatty liver in a child: Looking beyond nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

1 Department of Gastroenterology, Regency Health, Kanpur, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Regency Health, Kanpur, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jaya Agarwal
Regency Health, Kanpur
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ipcares.ipcares_133_21

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Background: Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is a rare genetic condition caused due to deficiency of the enzyme lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). The condition is characterized by poor growth, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. There is currently no data on the prevalence of this condition in the Indian population. It can easily be confused with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Clinical Description: We report the case of 4-year-old boy who presented to a pediatrician with poor growth. He was born to a nonconsanguineous couple with an uneventful perinatal period. The parents felt that the child was not growing well for 2 years. At presentation, he was hemodynamically stable and anthropometrically normal. He had pallor and hepatosplenomegaly. Rest of the examination was within normal limits. Preliminary workup showed persistent transaminitis. Further evaluation revealed dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in the liver fibroscan. The workup for other common causes of chronic liver disease was negative, and the clinical features were suggestive of CESD. Enzyme testing is required for the confirmation of this diagnosis, which was not available at our center or any outsourcing labs. Management: The diagnosis of cholesteryl ester storage disease was confirmed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) with multigene panel targeting the condition. At present, this child is in process to get registered for enzyme replacement therapy. Conclusions: LAL deficiency is a rare and difficult to diagnose entity. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis in children presenting with chronic liver disease with dyslipidemia and in lean children with NAFLD. For rare disorders where enzyme testing is not available, NGS can be utilized for diagnosis.

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