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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 154-157

Resolution of Fetal hydrops-not a favorable outcome in congenital pulmonary malformation type 1: A case report with review of literature

1 Department of Pediatric Surgery, Ca' Foncello Hospital, Treviso, Italy
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ca' Foncello Hospital, Treviso, Italy
3 Department of Pathology, Ca' Foncello Hospital, Treviso, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Dalia Gobbi
Piazzale Ospedale 1, Treviso 31100
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ipcares.ipcares_252_22

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Background: Congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAMs) comprise a spectrum of anatomical anomalies of the lungs and respiratory tree. The natural history of prenatally diagnosed CPAM varies from in utero resolution to progression to hydrops and intrauterine death. The majority of fetuses (90%) have a good outcome. However, in a minority (10%), the mass may grow so large that it is associated with complications and becomes life-threatening to the fetus. Clinical Description: Prenatal diagnosis of giant left CPAM type 1 was made at 24 weeks of gestation in a 29-year-old primigravida woman. The lesion consisted of multiple large cysts with a CPAM volume ratio of 4.7. Since the diagnosis, the mass was associated with nonimmune fetal hydrops and polyhydramnios which got worse throughout the following 4 weeks of gestation. Doppler studies remained normal until term. Management: The family received prenatal counseling. Parents refused termination of pregnancy and any other invasive or pharmacological therapy in light of the bad prognosis. The pregnancy was strictly monitored using standard fetal lung parameters. By 31 weeks' gestation, hydrops spontaneously improved to resolution but without any change in the size of the cysts. A baby girl was delivered at term, with birth asphyxia, who, despite all efforts by a multidisciplinary team, could not be revived. Autopsy and histopathological findings were compatible with type 1 CPAM. Conclusion: Hydrops is a well-known complication in fetuses with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. The present case reminds the possibility of its spontaneous resolution during pregnancy, even though the cyst size remains unaltered. The eventual neonatal survival depends not on the presence of hydrops but on the cyst volume and underlying lung hypoplasia.

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