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CASE REPORT
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-24

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia in an infant with diffuse cystic pulmonary tuberculosis


1 Department of Pediatrics, Christian Institute of Health Sciences and Research Hospital, Dimapur, Nagaland, India
2 Department of Pathology, Christian Institute of Health Sciences and Research Hospital, Dimapur, Nagaland, India
3 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Christian Institute of Health Sciences and Research Hospital, Dimapur, Nagaland, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Wonashi R Tsanglao
Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Christian Institute of Health Sciences and Research Hospital, Dimapur, Nagaland
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ipcares.ipcares_304_21

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Background: Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare disorder causing diffuse involvement of the lung parenchyma, including cystic changes. It is generally associated with autoimmune diseases in adults and human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Concurrent LIP with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is rare and has not been reported in the pediatric population. Clinical Description: An 8-month-old infant who was recently diagnosed with miliary pulmonary TB and on antitubercular treatment presented with fast breathing for 2 days. Salient examination findings were tachypnea, with oxygen saturation of 84% in room air. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed diffuse involvement of both lungs with bilateral cystic changes. Histopathological examination of a lung biopsy specimen was consistent with LIP. Management: First-line antitubercular therapy was continued as per the national guideline, and methylprednisolone pulse was administered for 3 days followed by maintenance prednisolone for 8 weeks. The child responded well clinically and was kept under close follow-up. Radiological improvement became apparent at 15-month follow-up. Conclusion: Presence of diffuse cystic lung disease in pulmonary TB should raise suspicion for LIP. Lung biopsy is diagnostic and should be considered in such cases.


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